Although I’m sure I’ll run into a few little snags that need handling, the code for the new social media search function on the Alliance for Appalachia website is pretty much done. One little thing that I just finished up was copying profile images from Facebook and Twitter pages to associate with each feed. Accessing the images themselves was a piece of cake, thanks to the Facebook and Twitter API’s, but programatically associating them with a Django ImageField and saving them was surprisingly tricky!
I’m not the only one - there are numerous Stack Overflow threads, Django snippets, and blog posts on this topic. I wanted to document, and explain the rationale behind, a simple version that works with the latest Django 1.3 release.
Ultimately the solution is very simple - it’s just tricky to get everything working right all at once.
1 # ... 2 from django.db import models 3 import urllib2, urlparse 4 from django.core.files.base import ContentFile 5 # ... 6 7 class YourModel(models.Model): 8 # ... 9 image = models.ImageField(upload_to="yourmodel/") 10 # ... 11 12 def save(self, *args, **kwargs): 13 ''' 14 Retrieve an image from some url and save it to the image field, 15 before saving the model to the database 16 ''' 17 image_url = "http://.../image.jpg" # get this url from somewhere 18 image_data = urllib2.urlopen(image_url, timeout=5) 19 filename = urlparse.urlparse(image_data.geturl()).path.split('/')[-1] 20 self.image = filename 21 self.image.save( 22 filename, 23 ContentFile(image_data.read()), 24 save=False 25 ) 26 super(YourModel, self).save(*args, **kwargs)
That’s it! The imports at the top will become apparent when you read the code, and the ImageField definition is the bare minimum. What’s important is how you override the model’s
Given a string
image_url, we use the standard library module
urllib2 to open the url on line 18.
Rather than just call
read() on it and immediately grab the data, I keep the returned object from urllib2 so I can use the
geturl() method seen on the next line. This is useful becuase it returns the URL you ended up retrieving data from, after redirects. Redirects are a common occurence when working with RESTful API’s like Facebook and Twitter’s, and it’s nice to be able to get the original filename.
In the next line, I use urlparse to split the url on forward slashes, and then use array slice notation with a negative index to get the last component of the url. After the redirect, this will be the filename. Given a redirect to something like
http://facebookcdn.com/awkwardprofilepic.jpg, this gives us
awkwardprofilepic.jpg. On the other hand, there’s nothing stopping you from picking any filename you want, so only use this if it makes sense for what you’re doing.
Ok, now we set the model’s
image field. As the Django ImageField docs explain, Django ImageFields are really just strings - paths relative to your project’s
MEDIA_ROOT, to be specific. The ImageField’s save() function actually builds this path from a) the filename, and b) the path you defined in the
upload_to= keyword argument. So the complete sequence is:
Therefore, the first step is
self.image = filename. Now we call the ImageField’s save() method, which is documented here. This actually saves a Django File object, which is a wrapper over Python’s built-in file object.
This was the tricky part - it requires a file-like object, but apparently the file-like object returned by
urllib2.urlopen isn’t good enough for it. However,
urllib2.urlopen.read() returns the file’s contents as a string, and Django provides a simple File wrapper class, ContentFile, that presents strings as file-like objects.
That is exactly what I do in the first two lines of
self.image.save. The last parameter,
save=False, is also very important. If
save=True (which it defaults to), then
self.image.save will try to call the model’s save() method - which will call itself infinitely and save hundreds of copies of the save image to your disk before you (I) figure out what’s wrong. To fix this problem, just set
save=False and then make sure to call the next line at some point afterwards so the model is saved to the database.
A note: A common attribute of many of the solutions I’ve seen around the web is the use of django.temp.NamedTemporaryFile. Note that if you do want to use NamedTemporaryFile, don’t import it from django.temp - this ticket explains that it’s not intended to be part of the public-facing API. However, its functionality is easily accessible in tempfile, part of the Python Standard Library.
In my original post, the code I included called
urllib2.urlopen without the timeout parameter. After sharing this post on the /r/django subreddit, reddit users lamby and issackelly pointed out that this code could be used to DoS the server it’s running on if the
image_url parameter is user-submitted.
The exploit is possible because Python’s
urllib2.urlopen function defaults to running with no timeout. Therefore, it would be possible for an attacker to craft a URL that causes the server to open a connection to a URL and wait indefinitely, and sending enough of these URLs would make the server run out of file descriptors and crash (as well as make it more difficult for legitimate users to make connections). This attack vector was described in the most recent Django security advisory as part of Django itself, in the
verify_exists code of models.URLField.
Fortunately, the solution is fairly simple. In Python >= 2.6,
urllib2.urlopen accepts the timeout parameter seen in the code above. You can specify the number of seconds to wait for a connection to establish.
In my code,
image_url could only be set by a user on the admin site, so I didn’t consider the security of my original code as carefully as a should I have. Even if the user is an admin, this goes to show that it’s wise to [never trust user input.] in designing software.